Newcastle: Discover the Roman Roots and Medieval Castle of this Northern City
Newcastle: A City with Many Faces
Newcastle is a common name for several cities around the world, but they are not all the same. In this article, we will explore three different Newcastles: Newcastle upon Tyne in England, Newcastle in South Africa, and Newcastle in Australia. We will compare and contrast their history, culture, economy, and attractions, and see what makes each Newcastle unique.
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne is the oldest and most populous of the three Newcastles. It is located on the River Tyne in North East England and has a history dating back to Roman times. The city was founded as Pons Aelius by the Romans in the 2nd century AD and later became a major settlement under the Anglo-Saxons and the Normans. The city's name comes from a castle built by Robert Curthose, the eldest son of William the Conqueror, in 1080.
Newcastle upon Tyne is known for its rich and diverse culture, especially in music, art, literature, and sports. The city has produced many famous musicians, such as Sting, Mark Knopfler, Brian Johnson, and Cheryl Cole. It also has a vibrant nightlife scene with many pubs, clubs, and festivals. The city is home to several museums and galleries, such as the BALTIC Centre for Contemporary Art, the Laing Art Gallery, and the Great North Museum. The city also has a strong literary tradition, with writers such as Catherine Cookson, Basil Bunting, and David Almond hailing from Newcastle. The city is also passionate about sports, especially football (soccer), rugby, and basketball. The city's main football team is Newcastle United FC, which plays at St James' Park.
Newcastle upon Tyne was once a major industrial centre, especially for shipbuilding and coal mining. However, these industries declined in the 20th century and the city had to reinvent itself as a service-based economy. Today, the city is a hub for education, research, healthcare, retail, tourism, and culture. The city hosts two universities: Newcastle University and Northumbria University. The city also has several science parks and innovation centres that support sectors such as biotechnology, digital media, engineering, and renewable energy. The city's main shopping area is Eldon Square Shopping Centre.
Newcastle upon Tyne has many attractions for visitors of all ages and interests. Some of the most popular ones are:
The Castle: The medieval fortress that gave the city its name.
The Tyne Bridge: The iconic bridge that spans the River Tyne.
The Quayside: The waterfront area that features bars, restaurants, markets, and cultural venues.
The Angel of the North: The massive steel sculpture by Antony Gormley that overlooks the city.
The Grainger Town: The historic district that showcases Georgian architecture.
Newcastle in South Africa
Newcastle in South Africa is the youngest and smallest of the three Newcastles. It is located in KwaZulu-Natal province near the border with Lesotho. The city was founded in 1864 by European settlers who named it after Newcastle upon Tyne in England. The city was involved in several conflicts during its history, such as the Anglo-Zulu War (1879), the First Boer War (1880-1881), and the Second Boer War (1899-1902). The city also played a role in the anti-apartheid movement in the 1980s.
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Newcastle in South Africa is a multicultural city that reflects its diverse population. The city has a mix of African (mainly Zulu), Indian (mainly Gujarati), European (mainly British), and Asian (mainly Chinese) influences. The city celebrates various festivals throughout the year, such as Diwali (the festival of lights), Eid al-Fitr (the end of Ramadan), Christmas ( the celebration of the birth of Jesus), and the Newcastle Winter Festival (a cultural and arts event). The city also has a vibrant music scene, with genres such as gospel, jazz, rock, and kwaito. The city is home to several artists, such as Ladysmith Black Mambazo, Sipho Mabuse, and Ntokozo Mbambo.
Newcastle in South Africa is an industrial city that relies mainly on coal mining, steel production, and textile manufacturing. The city has the largest coal deposit in South Africa and hosts several coal mines and power stations. The city also has the largest integrated steel plant in the country, ArcelorMittal South Africa Newcastle Works. The city is also known for its textile industry, which produces clothing, footwear, and leather goods. The city's main shopping area is Newcastle Mall.
Newcastle in South Africa has many attractions for visitors who are interested in history, nature, and culture. Some of the most popular ones are:
The Battlefields Route: A scenic route that covers the sites of various battles that took place in the region.
The Chelmsford Nature Reserve: A wildlife sanctuary that offers camping, fishing, boating, and game viewing.
The Carnegie Art Gallery: A public art gallery that showcases local and national artists.
The Fort Amiel Museum: A historical museum that displays artifacts and exhibits related to the military history of the city.
The Black Rock Casino: A entertainment complex that features a casino, a hotel, a spa, and a golf course.
Newcastle in Australia
Newcastle in Australia is the second oldest and second most populous of the three Newcastles. It is located on the coast of New South Wales near Sydney. The city was founded in 1804 as a penal colony for convicts from Britain. The city's name comes from its resemblance to Newcastle upon Tyne in England. The city was also involved in several conflicts during its history, such as the Australian Frontier Wars (1817-1830), the Lambton Colliery Disaster (1894), and the Japanese submarine attack (1942). The city also played a role in the development of trade unions and social movements in Australia.
Newcastle in Australia is known for its laid-back and friendly culture, especially in music, art, comedy, and sports. The city has produced many famous musicians, such as Silverchair, Screaming Jets, Daniel Johns, and Sarah Blasko. It also has a lively nightlife scene with many pubs, clubs, and live venues. The city is home to several museums and galleries, such as the Newcastle Art Gallery, the Newcastle Museum, and the Lock-Up Cultural Centre. The city also has a strong comedy tradition, with comedians such as Carl Barron, Rhys Nicholson, and Becky Lucas coming from Newcastle. The city is also passionate about sports, especially rugby league, soccer, surfing, and cricket. The city's main rugby league team is Newcastle Knights, which plays at McDonald Jones Stadium.
Newcastle in Australia was once a major industrial centre, especially for coal mining and steel making. However, these industries declined in the late 20th century and the city had to diversify its economy. Today, the city is a hub for education, health care, service, tourism, and innovation. The city hosts two universities: The University of Newcastle and the University of New England. The city also has several research and development centres that support sectors such as biotechnology, energy, environment, and defence. The city's main shopping area is Westfield Kotara.
Newcastle in Australia has many attractions for visitors who are looking for adventure, nature, and culture. Some of the most popular ones are:
The Nobbys Head: The landmark lighthouse that offers panoramic views of the city and the ocean.
The Newcastle Beaches: The stunning beaches that offer surfing, swimming, fishing, and sunbathing.
The Hunter Valley: The scenic wine region that offers wine tasting, gourmet dining, and hot air ballooning.
The Fort Scratchley: The historic fort that was used to defend the city from the Japanese attack in 1942.
The Newcastle Civic Theatre: The elegant theatre that hosts various shows and performances.
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle in South Africa
Newcastle in Australia
Area: 113.4 km
Area: 247.9 km
Area: 261.8 km
Nickname: The Toon
Nickname: The Steel City
Famous person: Rowan Atkinson (actor)
Famous person: Charlene Wittstock (princess)
Famous person: Jennifer Hawkins (model)
In conclusion, Newcastle is a name that can refer to different cities in different countries, each with its own history, culture, economy, and attractions. Newcastle upon Tyne is the oldest and most populous Newcastle, with a rich and diverse heritage. Newcastle in South Africa is the youngest and smallest Newcastle, with a multicultural and industrial character. Newcastle in Australia is the second oldest and second most populous Newcastle, with a laid-back and friendly vibe. All three Newcastles have something to offer for visitors who want to discover their unique charms.
What is the difference between Newcastle upon Tyne and Newcastle-under-Lyme?
Newcastle upon Tyne and Newcastle-under-Lyme are two different towns in England. Newcastle upon Tyne is located on the River Tyne in North East England, while Newcastle-under-Lyme is located on the River Lyme in Staffordshire. They are about 250 km apart.
What is the currency used in Newcastle in South Africa?
The currency used in Newcastle in South Africa is the South African rand (ZAR). One rand is divided into 100 cents.
What is the best time to visit Newcastle in Australia?
The best time to visit Newcastle in Australia is from September to November or from March to May. These are the spring and autumn seasons, when the weather is mild and pleasant, and there are fewer crowds and lower prices.
What are some of the local delicacies in Newcastle upon Tyne?
Some of the local delicacies in Newcastle upon Tyne are:
Pan Haggerty: A dish of sliced potatoes, onions, cheese, and bacon.
Singin' Hinnies: A type of griddle cake with currants or raisins.
Pezzies: A type of pie with meat or cheese filling.
Saveloy Dip: A sandwich of saveloy sausage, pease pudding, mustard, and gravy.
Newcastle Brown Ale: A dark beer brewed in Newcastle since 1927.
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